Among the existing varieties and hybrids of tomatoes is difficult to give preference to one option. Each is distinguished by a certain taste and commodity qualities. But agricultural technology in general consists of general rules, which should be implemented in a timely manner. How to grow tomato seedlings, what is the optimum temperature it can withstand and what to do if it froze further in the article.
Terms for planting tomato seedlings on seedlings
Hurry up with seed sowing is not worth it. It is important to adhere to the terms recommended by the selected variety. Some gardeners excel to plant seeds in January. In principle, seedlings can spend about 60 days on the windowsill, but at the time of transplantation, its stalks and foliage will be stunted due to lack of light and violation of the conditions of keeping the containers with seedlings.
February, starting from the second half, may be the starting period for seeding tomatoes. However, there is a prerequisite - the whole process should take place in a heated greenhouse with good lighting. Window sills of city apartments are not adapted for this. If fluorescent lamps can help with the additional light, then it is unlikely to adjust the temperature and space conditions.Tomato seeds are recommended to be planted in the second half of February.
Experienced gardeners set for themselves the optimal time for sowing - mid-March. The seedlings will receive a sufficient amount of light, which is important for the normal vegetation of the plant. Early ripening varieties can be planted in early April. In cloudy weather it is necessary to illuminate the containers with seedlings, this lays a high yield.
How to plant seeds in a box
Seedlings are grown at home in separate pots or cups, but most often a wooden box is chosen as a container. Disinfect before use. This can be done with a solution of blue vitriol (100 grams per bucket of water). The parameters of the container must comply with: a height of at least 8-10 cm, length and width of 30x50 cm.Initially seeds can be planted in one box.
About a week before seeding, a soil mix is prepared:
- sod land (part 1);
- humus (1 part);
- sawdust (1 part);
- wood ash (2 tbsp. l.);
- superphosphate (1.5 tbsp.);
- hydrated lime (10 g.);
- peat (1 part).
The processed box is filled with substrate to the brim. It is preferable to use snow for moistening, laying a layer out of it for gradual thawing. If this is not possible, you can get by repeatedly spraying. Do not pour over prepared containers with plenty of water.
Before sowing the seeds must be trained, which includes soaking for the purpose of disinfection, treatment with growth stimulants, germination in a damp cloth.
The depth of seeding is 0.5 cm, the spacing between the seeds is 2x5 cm. You can lightly sprinkle the top with the same mixture with which the box is filled, but you do not need to overdo it. The upper part of the container is covered with glass or film. Until the emergence of seedlings above the ground, the temperature should be maintained within + 22 ° C. It is also important to provide good light sowing.If desired, seeds can be sown in a separator container
Growing tomato seedlings at home
For the seedlings to grow healthy and strong, you need to create the right conditions.
Shoots appear about a week after sowing. The box must be installed in a well-lit place. If it is a windowsill, then it is the brightest. With a lack of sunlight, fluorescent lamps are installed. The best development of saplings can be achieved with round-the-clock highlighting of the appeared shoots in the first 2-3 days, after which you can go into a normal daylight mode - 16 hours.First time seedlings desirable dosachivat
Young shoots should receive a sufficient amount of moisture, dry soil is unacceptable. At the germination stage, the moisture regime is maintained thanks to a shelter made of glass or plastic film. It is not necessary to clean it immediately after the emergence of shoots, you can periodically open the container, allowing the shoots to adapt to the new environment. After 1-2 weeks of this mode, the covering material is completely removed.
With the growth of shoots and an increase in the temperature regime of irrigation, more is required, the soil begins to absorb water more intensively during irrigation. Moisturize seedlings better at the root, without touching the green part. Water should be warm (+ 22 ° С), settled.
If the soil mixture is prepared correctly, then it is not necessary to introduce the subcortex at the first stage of sprout development. It is appropriate to enrich the soil with nutrients after the leaf is formed on the seedling. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers that stimulate green growth are commonly used. It is important in this matter not to overdo it so as not to burn out the crops. On a bucket of water enough to dissolve a tablespoon of urea.
The second feed is administered after a week. Best of all at this stage is suitable nitrophoska (for 1 liter of water a tablespoon of the product). This procedure is carried out every 10 days.With proper soil preparation, seedlings are not needed.
Cultivated tomato seedlings in boxes need picking. Its essence lies in the placement of shoots in separate pots (you can use plastic cups). Terms of transplantation usually occur one month after the appearance of sprouts above the ground surface. Prepared small containers should have a hole in the bottom to allow excess moisture to exit. The lower part of the pot is filled with drainage (small clay or large river sand). Then fall asleep light fertile soil or universal substrate.
Before picking, the box with the seedlings is watered abundantly so as not to harm the shoots during extraction. When transferring a seedling to a separate container, it is worth pinching the root. For 2-3 days after the picking, it is necessary to raise the temperature by a few degrees, so that the plants will soon take root in the new conditions.When the seedlings grow up, it must be seated in separate cups.
What temperature is considered optimal for tomato seedlings
One of the main rules of agrotechnics of tomatoes after seeding is the observance of temperature conditions. To prevent the seedlings from stretching, the temperature within 13-16 ° С is maintained in the first week after their appearance. Further, the daily figure increases to + 20-22 °, and night - up to + 17-18 ° C. If the temperature drops to + 10 ° and below, the development of the shoot stops, and with a minus index, there is a danger of the plant freezing.
Is it possible to grow tomato seedlings in a polyarbonate greenhouse
Tomatoes are suitable for growing in a greenhouse, but it is worth noting that not all designs are suitable for this. For example, to create proper conditions in a greenhouse made of plastic film is unlikely to work out if there are no air vents and windows. The first sun rays will raise the temperature indicator to a critical point.
The optimum temperature is:
- in the daytime 20-22 ° in sunny weather, 19-20 ° in overcast;
- at night 16-17 °.
At the initial stage of fruiting, the maximum rate reaches 26-32 ° С. During the flowering period, the degrees should not fall below 14 ° C.If temperature conditions allow, then you can plant seedlings in the greenhouse
To stabilize the growth of tomatoes and their ripening after the removal of the first fruits, the temperature is reduced to 16-17 ° C.
What to do if frozen seedlings: can I save
Do not despair if the young shoots are frozen, the tomatoes are among the resurgent species of plants that can be reanimated. With proper care, young shoots can be saved, the crop will even bear fruit, but the yield will, of course, decrease.
The following activities are used for resuscitation of tomatoes:
- pruning the damaged part of the stem;
- top dressing with urea solution;
- introduction to the soil of humates diluted with chicken droppings or manure;
- construction of shelter from film or agrofibre.
Culture recovery takes place in a short period of time, you should not despair and give up. Moreover, the percentage of crop losses will be insignificant.
You can grow seedlings from seeds on your own if you create favorable conditions for the germination of seedlings and their further development. Strong and healthy seedlings will go through a period of adaptation faster, which will speed up the harvest.