Fruits of tomato have high nutritional, taste and dietary qualities, so they are considered the most common vegetables. To obtain early fruits, many gardeners install greenhouses on their land. But in order to achieve better results in the harvest of tomatoes, it is necessary to know all the peculiarities of cultivation and how to plant the plants in closed ground.
Peculiarities of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
First of all, when constructing a greenhouse, it is necessary to take into account that the interior has sufficient lighting with all daylight and good ventilation. If in an apartment, in room conditions on a windowsill, this is easier to achieve, then in the greenhouse you need to observe the features.
Before planting the tomato, the metal parts of the structure must be disinfected with boiling water, and the wooden parts with copper sulphate. After these works, it is recommended to ventilate the greenhouse during the day and only then start planting the plant.
Soil preparation for tomatoes
Tomatoes not recommended annually planted in the same soil. A good option would be to replace the soil completely. If this is not possible, you can limit disinfection: Bordeaux liquid, dolomite flour, or just pour boiling water over it.
Effective cultivation of beds
Landing lanes begin to cultivate 1 week before planting. The number of beds depends on the area of the greenhouse. The optimal width of a single band is considered - 60-90 cmand height - 40 cm. Between strips it is necessary to leave a passage 60 cm wide, since in this case it will be easier to carry out agrotechnical work.
Soil fertilizer before planting
If the soil is not fertile, it must be fed for high yields. In the clay soil is recommended to make humus at the rate of 10 kg. on 1 sq.m. and 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate and 2 tbsp. l superphosphate. Next, fertilizers need to dig up well with the soil.In the clay soil can make humus
In order for tomatoes to grow to receive enough light and nutrients, it is necessary to properly plan their place of planting in advance. According to the recommendations of experts, the planting scheme depends on the tomato varieties.
Thus, the optimal solution is considered chess order, with the following distance:
- Undersized varieties. To get this kind of tomato good lighting, they are recommended to be planted on the edge of the greenhouse. The distance between plants should be 30 - 40 cm., Between the rows - 50 cm.
- Colony varieties. Planted such tomatoes in the middle of the ridge, taking into account the distance between the bushes 20 - 25 cm, between rows 40 - 45 cm.
- Tall culture. Such varieties are planted on a ridge along an intermediate passage. The planting pattern is 50–55 cm between the plants in the row and 65–70 cm between the rows.
When using this scheme, tomatoes will not interfere with each other during growth, and such a schedule will facilitate the harvest of early ripening varieties.The best solution for planting tomatoes is a chess order
The optimal age for planting seedlings is considered 1.5 months. During this time, the tomato root system is already quite developed and able to adapt to new conditions. The landing process itself takes place in several stages, as follows:
- In 20 minutes Before planting, tomatoes must be well spilled with water (in this case, the root system during transplantation will be less injured).
- A well is dug up at its intended location. 20-25 cm and deep 15-20 cm.
- A peg is set in the hole to further support the plant.
- The hole is abundantly watered.
- Carefully gets the seedlings and in a horizontal position is set in the recess.
- The seedling is covered with soil.
After transplantation, it is necessary to tie a sapling to a peg and form a small hole around the near-circle circle.After transplanting around the seedling need to make a hole
The main requirements for care include:
- maintaining the required temperature;
- top dressing.
By fulfilling these basic requirements, it will also be possible to speed up the time of fruit ripening.
On sunny days, the air in the greenhouse quickly heats up to a high temperature, which in turn has a detrimental effect on the seedlings. It begins to fade, develop poorly and may simply die in the end.
Therefore, to achieve the recommended temperature 25 degreesin which the plant develops well, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the room.It is necessary to regularly air the greenhouse.
The first beginner watering needs to be done. 5-6 days after disembarkation plants. Water the plant at the root, in a pre-formed hole. Water must be kept warm, warm +18 degrees. It is recommended to water the tomatoes 2-3 times a week, at the rate of 25 liters. on 1 sq.m.
Fertilizers applied for planting lasts for 1.5 weeks, then they begin, alternating in 11-12 days as needed, to be fed with nitrogen and mineral fertilizers.
The first feeding start with nitrogen fertilizers, such as:
- rotted manure;
- chicken droppings solution;
- magnesium sulfate;
These fertilizers contribute to the rapid growth of greenery and plant resistance to various diseases.
11 days later, after the first feeding, mineral fertilizers begin to be applied:
- "Kemira - wagon";
- copper sulphate.
These dressings affect the quality and volume of the crop.
Additional treatment with boric acid, at the rate of 1 g. on 1 l. water, can not only improve the appearance of the tomato and contribute to plant growth, but also add vitamin C to the fruitBoric acid treatment promotes plant growth
Tips for beginners
Experienced gardeners have their secrets for a good and rich harvest in a greenhouse. Therefore, beginners should familiarize themselves with the following nuances:
- For the greenhouse are selected hybrid varieties tomatoes, which have limited growth, resistance to various diseases, with the formation of 1 - 2 stalks.
- To sow seedlings for the greenhouse is better in late February, early March.
- Planted plants in the beginning of Maywhen the soil at a depth of 15-20 cm. warms up to and above 15 degrees.
- Despite the fact that all varieties for greenhouses are self-pollinating, for better fruit set during the growing season, the plants need to be slightly shaken off.
As you can see, these tips are not complicated; if they are followed, it will be possible not to worry about the good development of seedlings.
How to hold a pasynkovanie
The procedure itself is simple, using a secateur 3-4 lower branches are deleted, in some cases, the upper thickened shoots. It is also necessary to prevent new sprouts from the root system. At the first appearance of the stepsons, they must be carefully cut with a knife.
How to grow large tomatoes - step by step method
Before giving preference to large tomatoes, it is necessary to immediately take into account that agrotechnical work will take more free time. The cultivation of large fruits of tomatoes, is as follows:
- A selection of quality varieties.
- Seedlings sow in separate pots.
- After planting in the greenhouse, the seedling must be grown and formed into one trunk. To do this, below the first brush, remove all stepchildren and foliage.
- During growth, the stem is twisted to the support, thereby preventing future fracture of the hands under the weight of the fruit.
- When 4–5 brushes are formed on the stem, the top of the growth must be pinched.
- Regularly pinch throughout the season, removing root sprouts and shoots from the foliage.
- At emergence of the first fruits, it is necessary to watch their look. As soon as the fruits shine, they must be removed, allowing the rest of the crop to ripen.
After the entire crop has been removed from the branch, it must be removed with a pruner, so there will be more light in the greenhouse for the last ripening fruits.After harvesting the branch must be removed shears
What should be the height of the greenhouse
Growing a tomato in a greenhouse has its downsides, such as:
- insufficient amount of light than in open ground;
- frequent spread of plant diseases;
- inconvenience in care.
Therefore, the height of the greenhouse, for example, from the film, should be not less than 2.5 m. If the greenhouse has a dual roof, you can limit the height 2 m. In this case, when planting and carrying out agrotechnical works, there will be no need to bend down, and such a height will contribute to better circulation of fresh air and the possibility of planting high varieties of culture.
Plant overgrown tomatoes in the greenhouse
It often happens that tomatoes outgrow before planting. In this case, the holes for planting seedlings are prepared, focusing on the root system and 1/3 of the stem. As practice shows, on average, the depth of the fossa is 40 cm.
Thus, on the instilled stem, more roots are formed, which allow the tomatoes to get more nutrients.
In order to avoid rotting of the root system from the stem, which will be under the ground, need to remove all the leaves.
Problems with growing
Every summer resident knows that when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, certain problems may arise. Therefore, to avoid irreparable errors that can reduce the quality of the crop, you need to solve them in a timely manner.
Very often in one area there is no possibility to construct several greenhouses, so the newcomers often have a question whether they can combine the vegetables in one greenhouse or bring them to another.
Compatible tomato with pepper and cucumber
Tomatoes and peppers are solanaceous crops, so they get along well among themselves at any arrangement of beds.Tomato can be grown with pepper in the same greenhouse.
The best solution in saving space, as well as for the safety of pepper from aphids, it can be planted between the bushes of tomatoes. With cucumbers, the situation is different. Draft, which is so necessary for tomatoes, detrimental effect on cucumbers. And the humidity of the room for each vegetable should be different.
Tomatoes grow well at 40% humidity, and cucumbers at 90-100%, therefore plant these vegetables together undesirable.
Can I plant different vegetables with and without partitions
Tomatoes can be planted in a company, without partitions, with various greens, such as onions, parsley, and lettuce. Vegetables such as radishes, white cabbage and even watermelons combine well. But it is not recommended to grow tomatoes together with cucumbers, dill and fennel in the greenhouse neighborhood.
For the partition on the opposite side of the exit to the garden, it is better to place varieties of cucumbers, dill and fennel. In this case, the cucumbers will avoid drafts and get the necessary moisture from the condensate, and dill and fennel will not be able to suppress the growth of young tomatoes. At the entrance of the greenhouse planted tomatoes and other vegetables approved for compatibility.
Whitefly on tomatoes in a greenhouse
The most common pest for tomatoes in the greenhouse is the whitefly. These insects fly on tomatoes in large quantities, damaging their feces on the leaves.
How to understand that plants are amazed
To determine the presence of pests can be several indicators. The main features include:
- brilliant white bloom on the leaves;
- deformation of shoots;
- the presence of yellow spots on the plant.
What is dangerous pest
The insects themselves do not harm the plants. It is their sweet and sticky emptyings that contribute to the development of sooty fungi. The danger of these bacteria is that they clog pores plants and this in turn leads to disruption of photosynthesis.
The growth of these fungi eventually leads to the death of the plant.
How to get rid of midges and what means to fight
Despite the fact that the whitefly can in a short time adversely affect the development of the plant, there are several simple methods to prevent this:
- If whitefly is detected on tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, indoors it is necessary reduce the temperature to 10 degreesIn this case, adult pests will die.
- If the parasites settled on the seedlings in the greenhouse, the leaves of the plants must process with soapy water, and the room itself is more often aired.
- Affected seedlings at home need to be spaced from each other and gently remove insects with a sponge dipped in water.
To fight the whitefly in the spring, it can be ordered in vegetable farms of parasitic insects, which do not cause any harm to the plants, but willingly feed on whiteflies and their larvae.
But the most effective methods to get rid of and fight the midge are still chemical agents. The most common spraying solutions to destroy whitefly are:
- "Fitoverm" - 2 ml. drug on 1 l. water;
- "Aktellik" - 1 ampoule per 1 liter. water;
- Aktara - 1 pack of 1.5 liters. liquids;
- "Pegasus" - 2 ml. on 1 l. water;
- "Confidor" - 1 ml. on 1 l. water.
In the fight against whitefly, you can apply the following methods:
- Traps and fumigators. Traps in the form of adhesive tapes, with a pleasant aroma, are hanging at the base of the ceiling greenhouses. Insects, attracted by the smell, fly and stick to the tape. The best solution for greenhouses will be pyrotechnic simulator. Usually they have a spiral shape, which, when ignited, emit dangerous smoke for the whitefly.
- Folk remedy. If there is no possibility in the acquisition of mechanical drugs, you can use and poison a folk remedy in the destruction of parasites. To do this, chopped 2 cloves of garlic pour 1 liter. water and insist throughout the day. The plants are then sprayed with this filtered solution.
- Dandelion. But the best and safest way to fight whitefly is dandelion infusion. Prepare it in the following way: 40 gr. rhizomes and 40 grams. Dandelion stalks are crushed and poured 1 l. water. Insist insist for 4 days, and then filtering them 2 times with an interval of 1 week sprayed tomatoes.
In order to prevent whitefly, in the spring for prevention it is necessary to process the greenhouse. To do this, you need to replace the top layer of soil, and run the paths and walls with boiling water.
After reviewing all the nuances and tips, beginners in gardening will no longer have questions about how to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse. Considering the recommendations and observing the agrotechnical work, the tomatoes in a short time will delight the harvest.