When growing tomatoes on an industrial scale, it is important that the variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting. One of these is the Rio Grande. A variety of tomatoes has a number of advantages, which are also appreciated among summer residents and owners of country houses.
Description and characteristics of tomato Rio Grande
Let's start with the description. The plant of determinant type with a growing season of 110-120 days is stress resistant and universal use of fruits. The height of the bush rarely exceeds 70 cm, so the agrotechnology does not provide for garters. A compact tomato with a moderate amount of foliage does not need to be staved.
The fruiting period continues throughout the summer season. The fruit in the form of cream to the term of technical ripeness gains weight from 70 to 150 grams. The flesh of a beautiful red color has a dense structure, which makes the vegetable suitable for drying and drying. Harvest is often used to make sauces and ketchups. The sweet taste with a slight sourness is appreciated by the chefs of many countries of the world.Tomato Rio Grande on the bush
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
In order to form an opinion about the Rio Grande variety, its primary characteristics should be considered. Among the main ones:
- unpretentiousness in leaving (lack of need for a garter and pasynkovaniye);
- good adaptation to the complex climatic features of the region, adverse weather;
- strong immunity to resist fungal infections and viruses;
- interesting taste;
- the universality of the use of fruits;
- fruiting period throughout the summer;
- long shelf life of the crop, good transportability.
Tomato has no obvious disadvantages, although some gardeners note low juiciness. This fact is explained by the dense structure of the pulp, which is valued in the production of ketchup and sauces.
Features of soil preparation for planting seeds
Soil pick light structure, fertile (suitable universal substrate or a mixture of sod land with humus). Before sowing, the soil is heated in the oven or watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
When planting seeds in open ground, a bed is prepared in the fall, digging and introducing humus. In the spring they use mineral fertilizers to enrich the soil with essential trace elements.. Under the seeds make holes at a distance of 40 cm. At the edges of the beds set the sides of the boards, with which the film is fixed as a shelter. After the formation of 2 pairs of leaves, seedlings are transplanted into separate holes.Rio Grande Tomato Closeup
How to choose the right seeds for planting?
Seeds are recommended to purchase in specialized stores. This ensures complete processing of the material, resistance to diseases and pests.
When choosing grains, you should first familiarize yourself with the information on the label, which specifies the basic rules of agricultural engineering, shelf life and other recommendations. After removing the grains from the packaging should be selected healthy and large. If any lesions are found, make a rejection.
When using the seedling method, seeding is planned for the beginning or the middle of March (60 days before planting seedlings on the bed).
For the soil, containers or wooden boxes are used, the depth of which is not less than 10 cm. Plastic cups and pots can also be used. The bottom of the container should have drainage holes to release excess moisture during watering.Rio Grande Tomatoes
Small indentations (no more than 2 cm) with an interval of 4-6 cm are made on the surface of the soil with a finger. 2 seeds are put into each notch. Top of them close up with a small layer of peat.
To create optimal conditions for seed germination, spray the crop with warm water (moderately), and cover the container with glass or film. Temperature before germination should be 23-25 °. As soon as the seedlings appear, the container is placed in a well-lit place, shelter is removed, and the temperature is reduced to 18-20 °. So that the sprouts do not stretch out too much, the night indicator should be lowered to 16 °.
After the formation of 2 leaflets on sprouts, one should dive the seedlings, that is, transplant each root into a separate container. 7-10 days before transferring the seedlings to the garden, the hardening procedure is carried out for better adaptation in the new environment.
Transplantation in open ground
Transfer of seedlings to the greenhouse is carried out in the period from mid-April to the 10th of May. In the open ground, young shoots are planted from the 20th of May to mid-June. In the southern regions of the country, it is practiced sowing directly in open ground.
Tomatoes are planted in rows with an interval of 35-45 cm or square-nesting method according to the pattern of 40x50 cm. The depth of the holes is 10-15 cm. No more than 6 shoots are placed per m2. A mixture of peat, wood ash and humus is added to the groove, then the shoot is immersed.
Care after transplant
Tomato Rio Grande is very easy to care, even an inexperienced gardener can grow and produce a good harvest. The basic rules of agricultural engineering are in the following sections.
It is not necessary to re-moisten the soil when growing tomatoes, it can trigger the development of fungal diseases. After planting, it is sufficient to produce watering once a week. Regularity increases only with drought. The liquid rate per bush is at least 5 liters. It is advisable not to flood the foliage during irrigation so that it does not turn yellow.
Weeding and loosening
Tomato Rio Grande loves loose soil, so aeration should be carried out regularly (1 time in 10-15 days). Simultaneously with loosening, weeding is done, ridding the beds of weeds. The immersion depth of the instrument is at least 5-7 cm.
After transplanting shoots to the open garden, regular feeding is carried out:
- the first time the soil is fed with a solution of mullein (1: 5) or bird droppings (1:15);
- the second supplements are administered after 2 weeks (25 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15 grams of potassium salt, 60 grams of superphosphate and 1 gram of boric acid are placed on a bucket of water);
- the third portion of nutrition is added in a couple of weeks (30 grams of saltpeter, 70 grams of potassium salt, 40 grams of superphosphate are dissolved in 10 liters of water).
Subsequent feed consists of a solution of wood ash (per 10 liters of water 200 grams of ash).
Immediately after transplanting seedlings the bed is mulched. This will help retain moisture in the soil without frequent watering and reduce the amount of weed.
Many gardeners make awkward mistakes in agricultural technology, which can adversely affect the yield. Among the main ones:
- overfeeding with fertilizers (in particular, nitrogen fertilizers), which entails an intensive growth of foliage;
- the thickening of the beds, provoking the development of the fungus;
- pruning shoots to form a bush (the variety does not need a procedure, the yield is reduced due to the cut branches);
- planting tomatoes close to peas or potatoes (cultures are incompatible).
Diseases and their prevention
Strong immunity allows the variety to withstand many diseases and pests, but this does not mean that the need for prevention disappears. If we are talking about cultivation in the greenhouse, it is rational to replace the soil every year at the end of the season (a layer of at least 25-30 cm is removed). You also need to provide good ventilation when growing tomatoes.Planting Rio Grande Tomato
Open beds are watered with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate of low concentration before planting.. After planting, seedlings are regularly treated with biologics (for example, Fitosporin) or folk remedies in order to prevent fungal diseases or pests.
Tomatoes are most threatened by such diseases:
- late blight;
- gray and white rot;
- mosaic virus.
Among the dangerous pests stand out:
- Colorado beetle;
For the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly remove plant litter from the beds in the fall. It is well tolerated by the winter cold of the larvae and adult insects. Before the first frosts, the ground must be dug up to open the pest nests.. So be able to get rid of most of the parasites. In spring, between the rows it is worth planting the plants that frighten most insects: marigolds, marigolds, oregano, etc. If necessary, a treatment with insecticides should be carried out before the flowering period.
Rio Grande is very easy to care for, has the ability to adapt to certain conditions, which is a good help in agricultural technology. If you make a little effort, the plant will certainly thank the zealous owner with a generous harvest.