Nutrients are necessary for the normal growing season of fruit and ornamental crops. One of the main ones is phosphorus. Academician A.E. Fersman in his scientific work equated a microcell with the biogenic mechanism of life and thought. However, in nature, the substance practically does not occur in a free form, therefore mineral fertilizers, for example, superphosphate, are used to enrich the soil. Before using it, it is imperative that you read the instructions.
Composition and purpose of fertilizer superphosphate
Superphosphate is familiar to almost all gardeners and gardeners. Many have observed a picture at the site when the plants started to wither. One of the ways of resuscitation is the timely introduction of the nutrient mixture.
Besides phosphorus The complex includes other mineral additives:
- iron and other substances.
Superphosphate has on plant growth and development. beneficial effect:
- improves metabolism;
- contributes to the development and strengthening of the root system;
- accelerates the flowering and fruiting period;
- improves the quality and quantity of the crop.
In general, mineral fertilizers increase the immunity of culture, thereby increasing resistance to various diseases and attacks of insects. The use of the tool is not limited to the pre-sowing enrichment of the soil with nutrients. The composition is also used as dressings.
When making funds in the ground with an acidic environment, it is recommended to mix the product with limestone, phosphate rock, chalk.
Superphosphate is available in several varieties, which simplifies the use of fertilizer for certain crops. A distinctive feature of the compositions is, above all, the amount of phosphorus and the addition of other trace elements.
A simple variety of mineral fertilizers contains:
- phosphorus - 10-20%;
- nitrogen — about 8%;
- sulfur - up to 10% and other substances.
The product is a simple gray powder with a strong smell of acid. Properties and quality retains a long time at a humidity not exceeding the average.
Recommended tool for enrichment of composts, the introduction of fertilizing. In terms of efficiency, it loses to double superphosphate and granulated, but unlike them it has the ability to dissolve in water.Monophosphate
The raw material for the manufacture of granulated product is monophosphate. In the production process it is moistened, run under a press, and then rolled up in the form of granules. At the same time the indicator of phosphorus increases up to 50%calcium sulphate - up to 30%.
The advantage of granular agent is in more convenient use and long action trace elements. This is due to the slow dissolution of the granules in a wet environment, thereby increasing the efficiency of feeding.
The granular type of fertilizer is recommended for legumes, bulbous, cruciferous, cereals.
The tool contains 43-46% phosphorus in easily digestible form for the plant. Mono-magnesium sulfate, aluminum and iron phosphates, and calcium sulfate are also present in small amounts. The product is used to enrich any type of soil, which is introduced when growing different plants.Double superphosphate
Ammoniated superphosphate is recommended for crops, the development of which requires an increased amount of sulfur and calcium sulfate. In the tool, these figures are increased up to 12% and 55%.
Fertilizer dissolves well in water. Recommended for oilseeds, cruciferous and other plants.
There are other varieties that are enriched with boron, magnesium, molybdenum and other trace elements useful for plants.
Advantages and disadvantages of using compared with other means
In order to form an opinion about superphosphate and its qualities, it is recommended to get acquainted with the preferential characteristics.
The main ones include:
- security for human and plant health;
- the ability to dissolve top dressing in water, which eliminates clogging of the soil;
- affordable priceconvenient packaging;
- convenient application taking into account the choice of a more suitable type;
- provides the necessary supply of trace elements necessary for the development and growth of crops.
When using superphosphate it is worth considering its disadvantages:
- with improper use can acidify or salt the soil;
- give quick effect, but soon the soil is exhausted again;
- an excess amount of the product has a negative effect on vegetation.
Instructions for use
Before using superphosphate is necessary check soil acidity, if necessary, to deoxidize dolomite flour or lime. It is recommended to use fertilizer after preventive measures in a month, otherwise the nutrient mixture will lose its nutritional value.
The dosage of the drug to make different cultures
Each culture needs phosphorus, but in a certain amount, so it is important to know the dosage for each species in the garden.
Phosphates are used during the autumn or spring preparatory work. The granulated form of release of fertilizers is considered more effective.
Granules are added to each well. 3-4 grams. You can also make a scatter on the ground at the rate of 20 gr. per 1 m2.
A bed for tomatoes is prepared in a similar way: superphosphate is scattered over the soil or introduced into the hole. Dose is 15-20 gr. per 1 m2.
Pumpkin cropsFor pumpkin use double superphosphate solution
When fertilizing the soil before planting the land is enriched with minerals at the rate of 30 gr. per 1 m2. At the stage of active development of young shoots using double superphosphate, which is pre-diluted in water. When processing the greens, the solution should not fall.
Trees and berry plants
For spring feeding prepare a solution 15-20 gr. funds for a bucket of water. Under each bush pour about 6 liters of fluid. It is also allowed to apply fertilizer in a dry form at the rate of 1-2 tablespoons per unit.
To prepare the solution, superphosphate is taken, and water is in equal proportions and liquid is added between the rows. In autumn or early spring, you can add a mixture of humus or an infusion on bird droppings.
Dosage is: 60 gr. mineral complex 5 kg humus, 15 gr. potassium salt per 1 m2.
Preparation of working solution
Most gardeners make fertilizer together with watering. So the tool works faster, and therefore more efficient. Phosphorus fertilizers are considered water soluble, but when using cold water, the active substances disintegrate poorly. Therefore, to prepare the working solution take hot water.To dissolve superphosphate need to use hot water.
Exists 2 ways of breeding: the first one involves pouring powder or granules with boiling water, the second one - with slightly warm water and then installing the tank in a sunny place. High temperatures do not change the chemical composition of the fertilizer.
For the preparation of concentrated liquid 300 gr. funds pour 3 liters of boiling water and insist with periodic stirring. It should be noted that all crystallites do not dissolve, but visually decrease in size.
Concentrate (100 ml) before fertilizing the soil diluted in a bucket of water. When conducting spring dressings, wood ash (500 gr.) And nitrogen substances (20 mg) can be added to the solution.
Terms and methods of processing plants with the drug
Superphosphate can be used several times per season:
- during the preparatory work (fall or spring);
- for feeding seedlings;
- 2 weeks after transplanting;
- in case of yellowing leaves on young shoots.
It is better to apply fertilizer at the stage of soil preparation dry using a planter or manually. For dressings choose the liquid form (solution). It is poured at the root of plants.
During the season the mineral complex is used thrice:
- in the formation phase of 1-3 leaves;
- 15-21 days after the first feeding;
- 20-25 days after the 2nd procedure.
Security measures when working with the tool
Subject to the rules of storage superphosphate not fire and explosive. While using the fertilizer, it is forbidden to smoke, consume food or water. Hands and other exposed skin should be washed well with soap after work.
If a little working solution gets into the eyes or on the skin, you need to instantly wash the affected area under running water. The container in which the solution was diluted is thoroughly cleaned with the use of detergents.
Compatibility with other drugs
The highest efficiency superphosphate shows when applying on neutral soils (pH indicator 6.2-7.5). If the acidity is increased, then the fertilizer should be supplemented with dolomite flour or lime. These components do not interfere with each other's actions.With increased acidity of the soil before superphosphate contribute dolomite flour
In determining the companion for the phosphorus composition takes into account the type of product:
- monophosphate is well combined with nitrogenous substances;
- granulated and double species complement potash tukam.
Combine mineral complex permitted with organic matter: chicken droppings, humus, compost.
It is impossible use superphosphate together with ammonium nitrate, urea, chalk. The interval between the introduction of these substances should be not less than a week.
Storage conditions and shelf life
A heated room is more suitable for storing fertilizers, where a stable temperature regime is established. In dilapidated storerooms, there are not only temperature jumps, but also increased humidity, which stops the agent in the mess. Optimal rate must not exceed 50%.
Open bags should be closed in a sealed container or poured into a container with a retaining lid. Prepared solutions are used immediately or disposed of.The main indicator of the quality of superphosphate is the appearance
The main indicator of the quality of the product is its appearance, which should not differ from what the powder or granules were after the opening of the new pack.
Mineral fertilizers benefit only if used correctly. Therefore, before enriching the soil in the beds with nutrient mixture, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the instructions and advice of experienced gardeners.