Autumn pruning of fruit trees and shrubs should be carried out annually. If this is not done, it will lead to thickening of the crown. In the thickened crown, pests and diseases accumulate.that causes a decrease or even loss of the entire crop.
Basic rules for pruning fruit trees in the fall
If pruning on a tree has not been done for several years, it may be necessary to remove a large number of branches. But at one time to do it is not desirable. It is better to prune such trees for several years.Autumn pruning of fruit trees
Conducting pruning of fruit trees, it is very easy to harm the plant, especially when pruning young trees. therefore When starting pruning, it is necessary to clearly understand which branch and why it should be removed..
Pruning fruit trees must adhere to the basic rules:
- For one pruning it is impossible to remove at once a large number of large branches. This can significantly weaken the tree and even cause illness or death in the future.
- Branches with signs of disease, broken or dry are always removed first.
- After the removal of large branches the wounds of the trees are surely smeared with garden pitch.
- Is always try to use a sharp and high-quality tool, with a blunt instrument, you can inflict lacerated wounds that will continue to heal for a long time.
- Try hard use only clean toolsFirstly, it is easier for them to work, and secondly, dirty tools can harm the plant.
- When pruning tall trees try to use stairs and ladders. Or a special tool designed for cutting branches at height. Climbing the branches of trees is not recommended, this action can cause serious damage to the tree.
Methods for trimming shrubs and trees
There are two main ways of pruning shrubs and fruit trees:
Both methods of pruning are performed with the aim of redistributing nutrients along the branches of the tree.There are two ways of trimming - shortening and thinning.
Pruning produces stimulation and intensive growth of shoots, a positive effect on the correct formation of the plant. Pruning reduces the number of buds that consume food, shortens the path from the root system to the leaves of the plant, which stimulates increased growth.
Shortening - This is a partial removal of the top of the shoot. Shortening stimulates the growth of young shoots and the development of buds located below the cut, and also contributes to an increase in the thickness of the branches.
Thinning - This is the complete removal of branches. This pruning prevents the crown from thickening, prevents the development of diseases and pest infestation, and, consequently, increases the yield.
Pruning ornamental and berry bushes
The very first pruning of shrubs is carried out during planting. Young 2-3 year old saplings shorten shoots to 10 - 15 cm, no more than 3-5 buds are left on one shoot.
With proper care, in the first year young shoots will grow from these buds.Fruit shrubs pruning scheme
Conducting pruning shrubs in autumn, all diseased, broken or dry, as well as shoots that are close to the ground must be removed. If in the first year of development the berry shrub developed poorly and gave a weak increase, then all the shoots must be cut almost to ground level, leaving only 3-5 cm above the surface.
In the second year of life, the shrub must form several more powerful new shoots.. In the second year of life, the shrub must grow several more young powerful branches. In the fall, the shrub is also sanitized, removing sick, broken, or dry branches.
Removing shoots, pruning is done as close as possible to the base.
In the spring, it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the shrub and, if necessary, make another sanitary cut.
In the autumn, again carry out sanitary trimming of a bush, also cut off excess branches. On average, an adult and well-developed shrub, should consist of 10 to 15 branches of different ages.
Conducting pruning shrubs in the future, it is necessary to remember that the branches grow more intensively vsegov first year of life, and then the growth rate is greatly reduced. And by five or six years, the growth of branches practically stops.
In shrubs with abundant branching shoots cut a little. Medium Shrubs branches are cut off at 25% of the length, and with a weaker one, about half of the shoot is cut.
Shrub formation must be completed 4 to 5 years after disembarkation.
A healthy shrub should usually have the following ratio of shoots:
- 4-5 annual branches
- 3 - 4 biennial branches
- 2 - 3 three-year branches
- 2 - 3 four and five year branches.
Branches older than 5-6 years, it is recommended to completely remove.
The shoots of shrubs are removed depending on their physiological state, the direction and strength of growth. And this ratio may change.
How to independently trim a hedge?
What the hedge will look like in the future, depends on the correct formation in the first yearafter its disembarkation. Therefore, the correct shaping of the hedge should begin soon after disembarkation.Privet hedge
Many amateur gardeners do not cut young shrubs in the first few years, but this is wrong. To exclude a large growth of the plant up, in the first year of life it is necessary to carry out the correct pruning.. This will stimulate a good education of new basal growths. If this is not done, the lower part of the hedge may be bare, and the top will be thickened.
Many plants that are used to make hedges, such as hawthorn, snowberry, privet, combeler, and Mirabelle, are straight-growing. Therefore, they especially require good pruning soon after disembarking.
Shortly after disembarkation, cut out all the plants., leaving shoots no more than 15 cm above the ground. This will stimulate the growth of powerful young basal layers.
Next year, another strong pruning is needed. This will ensure the correct formation of a dense crown. If the density of shrubs seems insufficient to you, then next year you can once again carry out a strong pruning.The formation of a hedge
Third and subsequent yearswhen the formation of a strong basal growth is completed, only cosmetic decorative trimming of plants is necessary. The interval between pruning depends on the type of plant and slightly on weather conditions.
How to prune the fruit tree by yourself?
Independent pruning of trees should begin with the removal of dry, sick, as well as old branches. It is these branches that reduce the harvest of garden trees.
In order not to accidentally inflict extra trauma to the fruit tree, it is necessary to immediately inspect the branches and determine the number of branches that must be removed. It would be better to cut one big branch than to cut a few smaller ones.. When pruning branches, it is not recommended to leave stumps on the trunk, and remove the entire branch to the base near the trunk.Pruning fruit tree
If you are going to prune the fruit tree in the fall, you should, initially, prepare the tool. Take care of the sharpness of a hacksaw, shears or scissors. The level of injury inflicted on the plant depends on their severity. The better the gardening tool is sharpened, the less damage will be done to the tree trunk.. Sharp tool, much better cope with their task.
It is not recommended to use rusty tools, or even slightly covered with rust. It is likely that the tree after such a tool will hurt or even die.
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For the prevention of reproduction of various parasites and preventing the development of infections of trees, the branches that remain after pruning, it is recommended to burn. And the remaining ash can be used as a fertilizer. Wood ash contains large amounts of phosphorus and potassium.
Even old trees, with proper care, are able to produce tasty and high-quality fruit. For this follows remove excess branches and form the crown of a tree bush. At the same time it is necessary to leave only the strongest and youngest branches.
Proper pruning of fruit trees and shrubs is the key to a good harvest.. It is necessary only once to master all the subtleties of gardening and in the future to apply and improve their skills in practice.